“一帶一路”沿線:新疆蓬勃發展的國際貿易和文化交流


文章來源:石河子大學????發布時間:2021-09-22????瀏覽次數:12

Along the Belt and Road: Xinjiang’s thriving international trade and cultural exchanges

By Kou Jie (People's Daily Online) 15:10, July 13, 2021

The Xinjiang International Grand Bazaar is the largest bazaar in the world by scale, combining Islamic culture, architecture, ethnic commerce, tourism and entertainment. It is also one of the most famous landmarks in Urumqi.

It would have been hard to find many regions in the 13th century more prosperous and cosmopolitan than Xinjiang, a pivotal hub along the ancient Silk Road. When Italian traveler Marco Polo first visited Xinjiang, he was spellbound by its fusion of thriving international trade and vibrant culture, while a plethora of different ethnicities forged connections between China and the rest of the world. It was the high point in Xinjiang’s history, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.

Centuries later, the ancient Silk Road has been reinvigorated and transformed into the new “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI), injecting new charisma into Xinjiang’s dust-laden glories. It is now one of the most important international commercial hubs in Northwest China, with some 6,090 freight trains heading to Europe and Central Asia in the first half of 2021, carrying 6.57 million tons of merchandise. It is also a rising cultural exchange center, attracting foreign talents and students.

“Openness, cooperation and tolerance of different cultures are core values imprinted in Xinjiang’s history, which continue to thrive today. International trade, people-to-people exchange - Xinjiang is now becoming more international than ever,” said Anwar Abdukerim, a historian at Xinjiang Museum.

Booming exports

The first London-Yiwu cargo train carrying British products enters China through the Alashankou Port in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, April 24, 2017. (Xinhua/Zhang Yongheng)

Carrying over 1,720 tons of ketchup, a fully-loaded freight train bound for Rome left the Urumqi International Land Port Area (UILPA) on April 4th. The ketchup, which is produced in Xinjiang and worth 1.48 million US dollars, will then be processed into pasta sauce and salsa in Italy.

Accounting for a quarter of all global tomato output, China is a leading exporter of tomato and tomato-based products. Xinjiang produces over 70 percent of China’s tomatoes, but its exports used to be hindered by the lack of a convenient international transportation network.

Traditionally, Xinjiang’s ketchup was first sent to Tianjin sea port and then dispatched to Europe. The costs were high and it took at least a month to reach Europe by sea.

Thanks to a growing network of China-Europe cargo trains, more than 80 percent of ketchup produced in Xinjiang is exported to Russia and Italy every year. It now takes only half a month for Xinjiang’s ketchup to reach Europe. UILPA has launched several new routes, dispatching hundreds of freight trains carrying Xinjiang specialities, including pears from Korla and walnuts from Hotan, to Europe and Central Asia, expanding the international market for local farmers.

As of May 2021, there are 21 China-Europe freight train lines in UILPA bound for 19 countries and 26 cities in Central Asia and Europe. More than 200 types of goods from daily provisions and clothing to machinery and building materials are on the list.

“When the freight route was first established, its main function was to bring Xinjiang’s products to the European market. After years of development, many European and Central Asian companies have also used our freight service to promote their products in China, creating a win-win solution for both sides,” said Liu Le, vice manager of UILPA.

Working in his jewellery shop at Xinjiang International Grand Bazaar, Urumqi, 50-year-old Asim Mohammad speaks fluent Mandarin and Uyghur with his clients. (People’s Daily Online/ Kou Jie)

Xinjiang’s booming international trade is not only about “going out”, it also attracts overseas merchants to start their business here. Working in his jewellery shop at Xinjiang International Grand Bazaar, Urumqi, 50-year-old Asim Mohammad speaks fluent Mandarin and Uyghur with his clients. His shop is a treasure trove filled with Uyghur and Pakistani style jewellery designed by his wife, a Uyghur artist, while the warm ambiance and enormous influx of customers shows the allure of this shop.

“I came to China by bus in 1993. Transportation between China and Pakistan was quite inconvenient at that time. It took me days to go to Urumqi. In 1995, I met my wife and we started our jewellery business, and I have stayed in Xinjiang ever since,” said Mohammad.

According to Mohammad, doing business in Xinjiang is both lucrative and convenient. Pakistani and Indian style jewellery are popular with local Uyghur clients, while local authorities and business organisations have provided him the help he needs, such as visa services and favourable tax policies.

“I think BRI is a brilliant idea. It has helped many foreigners start businesses in China, and also brought Chinese products to their countries. I have many Pakistani friends who are now working in Xinjiang, and we are happy doing business here,” said Mohammad.

Under the framework of BRI, international trade has been a lucrative source of income for Xinjiang. According to statistics, in May alone, Xinjiang’s total import and export value hit 12.54 billion yuan (about 1.94 billion U.S. dollars), representing 48.3 percent year-on-year growth.

“Before the pandemic, my shop saw 200 customers per day, earning me 4,000 yuan. Life here in Xinjiang is very cozy and prosperous. I feel really content with my life,” said Mohammad.

Growing cultural exchanges

Shihezi University now has 409 foreign students.

Pacing to and fro in his dormitory in Shihezi, 21-year-old Adil Raza tries to memorise all his clinical medicine notes. When the new semester starts in two weeks, he will become a sophomore at the medical school of Shihezi University.

“I was born into a family of doctors in India. Both my elder brother and I have studied medicine at Shihezi University. The teaching quality here is superb, and the tuition fees are affordable,” said Raza.

Raza is one of the 409 foreign students at Shihezi University. In recent years, more and more foreign students have chosen to study in universities in Xinjiang. According to China’s Ministry of Education, over 500,000 foreign students studied in China in 2020, compared to 1,200 in 1978.

21-year-old Adil Raza is an Indian student who studies at Shihezi University.(People’s Daily Online/ Kou Jie)

“Studying in Xinjiang has made me realise how beautiful this place is. I love to talk to my Chinese friends and share Indian culture with them. And I really love Xinjiang cuisine, especially the spicy chicken stew,” said Raza.

Raza’s professor, 53-year-old Azeem Inayad, is a Pakistani expert in human physiology who has been working in Shihezi University for 12 years. His son was only two years old when they moved to Xinjiang in 2002, and now the boy is a college student majoring in physiology like his father.

“I came to Xinjiang in 2002, and was spellbound by the friendly people and good working environment here. I gave up my permanent teaching position in Pakistan, hoping to start a career here in Shihezi,” said Inayad.

Inayad says his students are from different countries. In addition to teaching them medical knowledge, he also likes to hear their stories and opinions of China.

53-year-old Azeem Inayad is a Pakistani professor at Shihezi University.(People’s Daily Online/ Kou Jie)

“Many of my students who are now back in their own countries send me messages saying they miss Xinjiang and their friends here. The BRI is not only about trade, it is also about people-to-people exchange. Those students can build a bridge between China and their countries, which is wonderful,” said Inayad.

“I hope more students can come and study in Xinjiang. They should see Xinjiang with their own eyes, not just blurry and biased images from the media,” added Inayad.

“I always tell my friends back in India that Xinjiang is a beautiful place. Cultural exchange and communication is really important, and I hope I can introduce Xinjiang and China to my people in India,” said Raza. 

(Web editor: Hongyu, Bianji)

“一帶一路”沿線:新疆蓬勃發展的國際貿易和文化交流

寇杰(人民網)2021年7月13日15:10

  新疆國際大巴扎是世界上規模最大的巴扎,它集伊斯蘭文化、建筑、民族商業、旅游、娛樂于一體,也是烏魯木齊最著名的地標之一。

  在13世紀新疆是古絲綢之路的樞紐,當時很難找到比新疆更繁榮、更國際化的地區了。當意大利旅行家馬可波羅第一次訪問新疆時,他被蓬勃發展的國際貿易和充滿活力的文化融合所吸引,同時感嘆于這個多民族的地區把在中國與世界其他地區聯系在一起。那是新疆歷史上的鼎盛時期,也是世界文化的黃金時代。

  幾個世紀后,古老的絲綢之路煥發出新的活力,成為“一帶一路”新的倡議,為塵封的新疆增添了新的魅力。現在,它是中國西北地區最重要的國際商業中心之一,2021年上半年,約有6090列貨運列車開往歐洲和中亞,運載貨物657萬噸。它也是一個新興的文化交流中心,吸引著外國人才和學生。

  “開放、合作和包容不同文化是新疆歷史上的核心價值觀,并在今天繼續蓬勃發展。國際貿易、人文交流——新疆現在比以往任何時候都更加國際化。”新疆博物館的歷史學家安瓦爾·阿布杜克里姆說。

蓬勃發展的出口貿易

  2017年4月24日,首列裝載英國產品的倫敦-義烏貨運列車通過新疆阿拉山口口岸進入中國。(新華社/張永恒)

  4月4日,一列滿載番茄醬1720多噸的貨運列車從烏魯木齊國際陸港區駛離羅馬。這款番茄醬產自新疆,價值148萬美元,之后將在意大利加工成意大利面醬和莎莎醬。

  中國番茄產量占全球總產量的四分之一,是番茄及番茄相關產品的主要出口國。新疆出產的番茄占中國番茄總產量的70%以上,但過去由于缺乏便捷的國際運輸網絡,新疆的出口受到了阻礙。

  傳統上,新疆的番茄醬首先運往天津港口,然后再運往歐洲。成本很高,從海上到達歐洲至少要一個月。

  由于中歐貨運列車網絡的不斷發展,新疆生產的番茄醬每年有80%以上出口到俄羅斯和意大利。現在,新疆的番茄醬只需半個月就能抵達歐洲。新疆維吾爾自治區已開通多條新線路,數百列貨運列車將庫爾勒梨、和田核桃等新疆特產運往歐洲和中亞,為當地農民拓展了國際市場。

  截至2021年5月,中歐班列已開通21條,往返中亞和歐洲19個國家和26個城市。從日常用品、服裝到機械、建筑材料等200多種商品都在清單上。

  “這條貨運線路剛建立時,主要功能是把新疆的產品帶到歐洲市場。經過多年的發展,許多歐洲和中亞公司也利用我們的貨運服務在中國推廣他們的產品,為雙方創造了雙贏的解決方案,”UILPA副經理劉樂表示。


  在烏魯木齊的新疆國際大巴扎,50歲的阿西姆·穆罕默德(Asim Mohammad)在他的珠寶店工作,他能用流利的普通話和維吾爾語與客戶交流。(人民網寇杰)

  新疆國際貿易的蓬勃發展,不僅是“走出去”,也吸引了海外商人來這里做生意。在烏魯木齊的新疆國際大巴扎,50歲的阿西姆·穆罕默德(Asim Mohammad)在他的珠寶店工作,他能用流利的普通話和維吾爾語與客戶交流。他的店鋪是由他的維吾爾藝術家妻子設計的維吾爾和巴基斯坦風格的珠寶寶庫,溫暖的氛圍和大批顧客的涌入顯示了這家商店的魅力。

  “我是1993年乘公交車來中國的。當時,中巴之間的交通十分不便。我去烏魯木齊花了幾天時間。1995年,我遇到了我的妻子,我們開始了我們的珠寶生意,從那以后我就一直呆在新疆。”穆罕默德說。

  穆罕默德說,在新疆做生意既賺錢又方便。巴基斯坦和印度風格的珠寶在當地維吾爾族客戶中很受歡迎,而地方當局和商業組織也為他提供了所需的幫助,比如簽證服務和優惠的稅收政策。

  “我認為一帶一路是一個非常好的想法。它幫助許多外國人在中國創業,也把中國產品帶到他們的國家。我有很多巴基斯坦朋友現在在新疆工作,我們很高興在這里做生意。”

  在“一帶一路”框架下,國際貿易是新疆的重要收入來源。據統計,僅5月份,新疆進出口總額就達125.4億元人民幣(約19.4億美元),同比增長48.3%。

  “疫情前,我的店鋪每天接待200名顧客,給我賺了4000元。新疆的生活是非常舒適和繁榮的。我對自己的生活感到非常滿足。”穆罕默德說。

越來越多的文化交流

  石河子大學現有留學生409人。

  21歲的阿迪爾·拉扎(Adil Raza)在石河子大學的宿舍里來回踱步,努力記住所有的臨床醫學筆記。兩周后新學期開始,他將成為石河子大學醫學院的大二學生。

  “我出生在印度的一個醫生家庭。我和我哥哥都在石河子大學學醫。這里的教學質量一流,學費也負擔得起。”

  Raza是石河子大學409名留學生中的一員。近年來,越來越多的外國學生選擇在新疆大學學習。根據中國教育部的數據,到2020年,在中國學習的外國學生超過50萬,而1978年只有1200名。

 

  21歲的阿迪勒·拉扎是石河子大學的一名印度學生。(人民網寇杰)

  “在新疆的學習讓我意識到這個地方有多美麗。我喜歡和我的中國朋友聊天,分享印度文化。我非常喜歡新疆菜,尤其是辣味燉雞。”

  53歲的阿齊姆·伊納亞德(Azeem Inayad)是來自巴基斯坦的人類生理學專家,他是拉扎的教授,在石河子大學(Shihezi University)工作了12年。2002年他們搬到新疆時,他的兒子只有兩歲,現在他和父親一樣是一名生理專業的大學生。

  “2002年我來到新疆,這里友好的人民和良好的工作環境深深吸引了我。我放棄了在巴基斯坦的永久教職,希望能在石河子開始我的職業生涯。”

  Inayad說他的學生來自不同的國家。除了教授他們醫學知識,他還喜歡聽他們的故事和對中國的看法。

 

  53歲的Azeem Inayad是石河子大學的巴基斯坦教授。(人民網寇杰)

  “我的很多學生現在已經回到了自己的國家,他們給我發短信說,他們想念新疆和這里的朋友。“一帶一路”不僅是貿易,也是人文交流。這些學生可以在中國和他們的國家之間架起一座橋梁,這太棒了。”

  “我希望有更多的學生來新疆學習。他們應該用自己的眼睛去看新疆,而不是媒體模糊和有偏見的圖像。”

  “我總是告訴我在印度的朋友,新疆是一個美麗的地方。文化交流非常重要,我希望我能把新疆和中國介紹給我在印度的人民。”

  (網絡編輯:Hongyu, Bianji)

  人民網(2021713日):http://en.people.cn/n3/2021/0713/c90000-9871349.html

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